ASHRAE STANDARDS AND HANDBOOKS
The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. produce Standards and Handbooks; ASHRAE Standards are rules for construction while ASHRAE Handbooks are non-binding references.

Handbook Chapter 46 – PIPES, TUBES, AND FITTINGS ©2012 refers the user to ASME B31 for the rules of construction in the selection of components of the bolted flanged joint.  ASHRAE mentions components in the section Joining Methods. This section is descriptive and does not contain enough information for the user to make an appropriate selection.

AWWA STANDARDS AND APPENDICES
The American Water Works Association produces Standards. When incorporated into a purchasing contract these Standards are rules for construction.  Some AWWA Standards utilize a non-binding appendix to address the selection of components to the bolted flanged joint.  The non-binding appendix is a reference rather than a rule for construction.  In these cases it may be prudent to use ASME B16.42 Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings Classes 150 and 300, for rules of construction.

ASTM STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
The American Society for Testing and Materials is a voluntary technical standards development organization for products, systems and services. The ASTM neither engineers nor makes material selection decisions for components to the bolted flanged joint.  ASTM Standard Specifications for products are referenced, however, in ASME Codes for the selection of components.

ASME CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING B31
The Code for pressure piping consists of a number of individually published sections under the direction of ASME Committee B31. The Code sets forth engineering requirements deemed necessary for safe design and construction of pressure piping. The Code establishes the rules of construction but does not do away with the need for competent engineering judgment.

Rules for each section have been developed considering the needs for application of specific requirements for various types of pressure piping. Applications considered for each Code section include the following:

B31.1 POWER PIPING
B31.3 PROCESS PIPING
B31.4 PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID HYDROCARBONS AND OTHER LIQUIDS
B31.5 REFRIGERATION PIPING
B31.8 GAS TRANSPORTATION AND DISTRIBUTION PIPING SYSTEMS
B31.9 BUILDING SERVICES PIPIPNG
B31.11 SLURRY TRANSPORTATION PIPING SYSTEMS

ASME RULES FOR CONSTRUCTION  – LISTED MATERIALS
The selection of materials is limited to those listed in ASME documents. Use of non-listed materials may be allowed if their use is documented for each application and the owner agrees to their use.

USE OF LOW STRENGTH CARBON STEEL BOLTING IN ASME B31 APPLICATIONS
In ASME B16.5 Table 1B, under the category of Low Strength Bolting, ASTM A307 Grade B is a listed material.  These bolts are limited to use with Classes 150 and 300 flanged joints, and use with nonmetallic gasket materials at temperatures between -20 F to 400F. These same conditions and rules apply to the ASME B31 Codes.

The ASTM Standard Specification A307 states that Grade B bolts are intended for use with cast iron flanges.  This statement does not preclude their use with steel flanges.

ASTM A307 Grade A bolts are not listed in ASME Flange Standard Specifications or B31 codes. And, by definition are not allowed. The steel used in ASTM A307 Grade A bolts allow sulfur levels up to 0.15% for ease of machining.  This higher sulfur level decreases the fracture toughness property of the Grade A bolt.

SAE J429 Grade 1 and 2 bolts are not listed in ASME Flange Standard Specifications or B31 Codes. These bolts do not have identifying head markings.  By definition, these bolts are not allowed.